Hyperglycemia is abnormal rise of blood sugar level in the body. When it is first detected during pregnancy irrespective of diet or insulin therapy, the condition is called gestational diabetes. At least 2 to 10 percent of pregnant women are known to develop gestational diabetes. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy can affect fetus inside the womb as well as the pregnant mother. It can increase the risk of complications during and after birth in babies. Gestational diabetes is caused due to insulin resistance in pregnant women.
The symptoms of hyperglycemia during pregnancy are same as experienced by any diabetic patient.However, often the symptoms are missed by the pregnant woman as she may not be aware of the underlying cause. Fortunately, hyperglycemia once detected during pregnancy can be controlled by eating healthy diet, exercising, and with medication. Once controlled the risk of complications reduces. The blood sugar usually returns back to normal after pregnancy.
Signs And Symptoms Of Hypoglycemia In Pregnancy
Many women may not notice the symptoms of hyperglycemia if it has occurred only during pregnancy. In majority of cases it is now detected during early screening that is done for various disorders during pregnancy.Following are the list of symptoms that may occur when a pregnant women is suffering from hyperglycemia.
- Increased thirst: She may experience increase in thirst even if the women is drinking enough water.
- Frequent urination: There is increased frequency of urination. The urine output is also increased.
- Increased hunger: She feels hungry frequently even after eating full diet. However if she has frequent nausea and vomiting, there may be loss of appetite.
- Weakness: The pregnant women may feel weak and prostrated out of proportion. Many times she may link it with regular problems that occur in pregnancy and may not pay much attention to it. With hyperglycemia she may also experience change in mood, blurred vision, etc.
- Itching: There may be itching in the vaginal area. It occurs due to change in the vaginal secretion. It occurs due to fungus and bacterial infection.
Complications Of Hyperglycemia In Pregnancy
Hyperglycemia during pregnancy can seriously affect mother as well as the baby inside her womb. It can cause many complications if the condition is not controlled. More than the pregnant woman, the effects of hyperglycemia are far disturbing for the baby. The excess of sugar in blood reaches the baby through placenta.
- Birth defects: Hyperglycemia during pregnancy increases risk of birth defect in baby. If the condition has developed in first trimester of pregnancy, it may affect development of brain and spinal cord.
- Big Baby: Also called in medical parlance as macrosomia, babies are prone to be overweight if their mother has hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Due to their larger size there is risk of shoulder damage during labor.
- The infant may also suffer from low sugar level or hypoglycemia after birth.
- The child is at risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes when he attains adulthood.
- Many children after their birth suffer from breathing problems.
- Due to the large size, the child is often delivered through cesarean section.
- Pregnant woman is predisposed to hypertension and pre eclampsia if she is detected to have high blood sugar level.
- The risk of stillbirth is high in woman having high blood sugar during pregnancy. Raised blood sugar level can damage the blood vessels in placenta. The fetus may not receive proper nutrition and oxygen as a result thus increasing the fatality of fetus inside the womb.