Cyst on placenta is often a common finding during pregnancy. It is a simple cyst containing clear fluid. Placental cysts are small and they measure less than 3cm in size. However, sometimes the cyst enlarges in size. According to an estimate at least 20 percent of pregnancies are known to have placental cyst. Cyst developing on placenta can occur due to compromise in blood supply to the placenta or can develop due to placental degeneration.
There is no specific sign or symptom of placental cyst. However, a large cyst attached near the umbilical cord insertion can constrict the cord.A large cyst can also restrict the growth of fetus. But in majority of cases such complications does not occur.
What Causes Cyst On Placenta?
The placenta is a disc shaped flat structure attached to the womb. It is a vital structure between the mother and child. It connects the fetus to the mother through umbilical cord. The main function of placenta is to supply oxygen and nutrient to the fetus through the umbilical cord from the blood of pregnant woman. Placenta is covered by two membranes; chorion and amnion.
Most often a cyst develops in subchorionic area of the placenta or within the placental tissue.The exact etiology for development of cyst on placenta is not known, but factors such as reduced blood supply and placental degeneration can contribute for its development. Placental cyst can occur at any age of a pregnant woman. At least 10 to 20 percent of pregnancies are known to have placental cyst.
Signs And Symptoms Of Cyst On Placenta
There are no specific signs and symptoms of cyst on placenta. It is diagnosed during routine sonography done periodically during pregnancy. The cyst may form in early pregnancy or may develop at a later stage. In some cases the pregnant woman may have frequent urination, mild pain in pelvis and bloating sensation.
Cyst on placenta may be revealed during the examination of placenta after parturition of the fetus. If a cyst is suspected, further investigation done by a pathologist can confirm its presence. Pathological examination of the placenta is considered to be a gold standard procedure to diagnose a cyst on placenta.
Complications And Treatment Of Cyst On Placenta While Pregnant
Placental cysts are usually small. There can be one cyst or multiple cysts. The average size is about 3 cm. But it can further grow and become large in size. A large cyst on placenta can compromise blood and nutrient flow to the fetus. As a result it may cause intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus.
Fetal growth has various complexities. It is greatly influenced by the health condition of mother, healthy uterus, and quality of placenta. Most commonly IUGR in such case develops when cyst on placenta is in the area where the umbilical cord is inserting in the placenta.
Usually no treatment is required for cyst on placenta. Placental cyst can be seen as early as first trimester with transvaginal sonography. Usually the cyst does not change its size. But sometimes the cyst increases in size as pregnancy progresses. Although most placental cyst does not harm the fetus, a large subchorionic cyst attached near the insertion of umbilical cord can become harmful for the fetus well being.
It can cause compression on the blood vessels of umbilical cord. In such case the doctor may have to keep regular monitoring of the fetus as well as the mother. The main worry is blood flow to the fetus must not be compromised. To improve the blood flow in the vessels of cord with presence of placental cyst, the pregnant women is instructed to do breathing exercises.