Chronic deciduitis is condition related to chronic inflammation of placenta. Inflammatory changes are observed predominantly on the maternal side of placenta. Inflammation occurs typically when the white blood cells penetrate into the placenta. The two most common triggers presumed to cause chronic deciduitis are infection and aggravation from the fetal antigen.
Chronic deciduitis does not present with any particular sign and symptoms. However, presence of this condition can increase the risk of preterm labor. Chronic deciduitis does not have any specific treatment. Since preterm labor is one of the associated risks, the main aim is to manage it if the condition arises.
What Causes Chronic Deciduitis?
Placenta is a disc shaped structure attached in the inner wall of uterus during pregnancy. It is a connecting organ between the mother and fetus inside her womb. One end of umbilical cord is connected to the placenta and other end is attached to the fetal stomach. Blood circulates from mother to fetus through placenta. Placental blood carries necessary oxygen and nutrition to the developing fetus. The two umbilical arteries and one vein of umbilical cord carry proper circulation of blood between the fetus and mother.
Chronic deciduitis is a condition that can occur in a pregnant woman of all ages.It is characterized by inflammation of the placenta. The exact cause why inflammation occurs is not known, but it is believed to be associated with bacterial or viral infection. The white blood cells known as plasma cell penetrate into the placenta leading to its inflammation. The other cause of chronic deciduitis is stimulation of fetal antigen.
Significance And Treatment Of Chronic Deciduitis
There is no specific sign and symptom of chronic deciduitis. But it is associated with spontaneous preterm labor in many cases. Chronic deciduitis hence increases the risk of preterm labor. The condition is diagnosed with medical history of preterm labor together with physical examination.
During microscopic examination white blood cells specifically lymphocytes and plasma cells have been found in placenta. A perfect diagnosis is possible with histopathological and microscopic examination.
Treatment: Chronic deciduitis does not have any specific treatment. Since it can cause preterm labor in a pregnant woman all care is taken during the time of delivery to prevent harm to the fetus. Appropriate management during the time of delivery is essential for a better outcome and reducing risk of fetal fatality.