Types Of Mental Retardation: Symptoms Of Intellectual Disability

Mental retardation is diagnosed when the individual experiences impaired cognitive skills and other behavioral problems. There are many reasons why such conditions occur among people.

Causes Of Mental Retardation

  • Genetics may contribute to the risks involved in mental retardation. Abnormality in the genes of the parents can be inherited by the offspring.
  • Problems while the mother is pregnant can cause mental problems for the child, especially if the mother had malnutrition, exposed to substance abuse and other illnesses.
  • Some diseases during the early years of childhood are also considered causes, particularly in conditions such as chicken pox, measles and whooping cough.
  • Environmental factors such as inadequate medical facilities and poor living conditions may also put children at risk.

Different Types Of Mental Retardation

Below are the most common forms of mental retardation observed in the medical field:

  • Autism is characterized by a distorted sense of realities that afflict children.
    They can exhibit signs of being in a different realm or a feeling of living in their own world.
  • Down Syndrome occurs when there is an excess count of chromosomes in the body, which may cause disruption of the functions of the brain. Continuing research has yet to find a treatment for it.
  • Dyslexia affects children who are of school age. Dyslexic patients are predisposed to have difficulties in dealing with writing, arithmetic and reading.
  • One of the mild forms of mental retardation is Asperger’s Syndrome. It affects the person’s ability to interact with others as they find it hard to express themselves.
  • One of the rare mental conditions is Phenyleketonuria, which is the lack of motor coordination skills caused by poor secretion of an enzyme in the body. Such condition causes undue damage to the brain.

Signs And Symptoms Of Intellectual Disability

  • The learning process for a child with mental retardation can be quite difficult that they tend to exhibit short attention span and poor social skills.
  • Young children who are likely affected by a mental abnormality if they are also poor at fundamental abilities such as communication and comprehension. They have little or no inquisitiveness and aptitude for solving problems.
  • The propensity to self-inflict pain or tendency to become violent is a common symptom among sufferers of mental retardation.
  • Another sign would be inability to crawl, walk, sit or talk as their muscles are affected by the illness.

Levels of Mental Retardation: Mental retardation is classified according to mild, moderate, severe and profound types. These are categorized based on the patient’s Intelligence Quotient (IQ) range and the level in which the impairment manifests.