Mycoplasma genitalium is an anerobic bacteria living in the mucus membrane of urinary and genital tract of men and women. In recent times it has been known to be the most common cause of non gonococcal urethritis in men and cause of cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, in women. Researchers indentified this bacterium in 1980 from the urethral specimen of two men who were having symptoms of non gonococcal urethritis infection.
The bacterium transmits through vaginal, anal or oral copulation. The risk increases in men and women who indulge in unprotected coition or have multiple partners.In men the symptoms are burning sensation while passing urine. Women suffering from this infection have abnormal vaginal discharge, discomfort while passing urine, painful coitus etc. Mycoplasma genitalium can be treated with antibiotics.
Signs And Symptoms Of Mycoplasma Genitalium
Mycoplasma genitalium is present in both males and females hence it may produce different types of symptoms in both. Often the symptoms of this infection remain silent. This means the patient may not present with any symptoms even though the bacteria is present in the genital or urinary tract. Symptoms that occur are as follows:
Symptoms in men:
In men urithritis is the most common symptom of mycoplasma genitalium infection.It means the urethra gets infected after exposure to the bacteria. Urethra is a long canal between the bladder and tip of penis. The symptoms are:
- Burning urination.
- Watery or sticky discharge from penis.
- Pain in penis during intercourse or at the time of ejaculation.
- Frequent urge to urinate.
Symptoms in women:
Mycoplasma genitalium has many clinical symptoms that are consistent with sexually transmitted disease. Women having multiple partners or practicing unprotected sex are most vulnerable to this infection. The symptoms typically seen are those of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). They include:
- Pain in lower part of abdomen or pelvis.
- Abnormal vaginal discharge.
- Burning and discomfort while urinating.
- Frequent bleeding before periods.
- Post coital bleeding is mainly due to cervicitis.
- Pain during intercourse.
If the problem remains unresolved, the infection can spread further upwards into the fallopian tube leading to scarring of the tube. Damage to the fallopian tube leads to infertility.
Transmission Of Mycoplasma Genitalium
Mycoplasma genitalium is a bacterial infection caused by anerobic bacteria called mycoplasma genitalium. This organism resides in the mucus membrane of genital tract, and urinary tract of human beings. Transmission of mycoplasma genitalium occurs through vaginal, anal or oral sex. It is now considered to be a sexually transmitted infection (STI). The symptoms develop between 1 to 3 weeks after the exposure.
The risk of infection typically is similar to those of any other sexually transmitted infection. It is more common in women and men of younger age. Multiple partners, young age during first intercourse, partners suffering from infection and its co-infection with other sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis increases possibility to mycoplasma genitalium.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mycoplasma Genitalium
Diagnosis of mycoplasma genitalium is done in a pathology laboratory from samples of urine and cervical discharge. The test called PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is used to detect the organism. However, the test is not available at all places. Hence the diagnosis is made when tests for other diseases such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia are negative in patient suffering from symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis.
Mycoplasma genitalium is treated with antibiotics. The most effective antibiotic is azithromycin 1gm as a single dose. However, the antibiotic may not be effective because of resistance to the drug. Besides this there are many other antibiotic medicines that have been tried with effective results.
Besides the conventional treatment, patient must take other precautionary measures to stop further spread of disease. This may include avoiding coition till the time patient is on medication. Patient must also practice safe sex. All sexual partners of the patient must be tested and if found infected need to be treated.