Lymphadenopathy is enlargement of the lymph nodes. The inflammatory changes in lymph nodes can occur in several diseases, including dengue fever. Dengue fever is viral illness transmitted by bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The disease is common in tropical countries with frequent outbreaks in rainy season.
The prominent sign and symptom of dengue fever lymphadenopathy is enlarged lymph nodes of groin and neck region. The other common symptoms are fever, mild to moderate muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, red rash on the body. Sometimes patient may have pain in abdomen with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.
Treatment of dengue fever lymphadenopathy is the same as that of dengue fever. Proper rest, adequate fluid intake, anti pyretic medicines, is the choice of treatment. The enlarged lymph nodes may take time to subside after the acute illness is cured.
Causes Of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
The underlying cause of dengue fever lymphadenopathy is dengue fever. Dengue fever is a vector borne disease caused by bites of infected Aedes mosquito. The disease is common in tropical countries especially during the rainy season, when mosquitoes get an opportunity to breed in stagnant water of potholes and drenches.The disease can affect anyone, but it is more common when the immune system of an individual in low.
Dengue fever lymphadenopathy is a viral disease. The virus belongs to flavivirus family. It is of four serotypes DEN1 – DEN4. The intermediate host is mosquito as the disease is transmitted from an infected person to non infected person by mosquito bites. Mosquitoes spreading dengue fever usually bite during day time. They breed in fresh and stagnant water surrounding the house of the patient.
Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy Symptoms
The symptoms of dengue fever lymphadenopathy start 3 to 5 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. In the beginning patient may present with severe fatigue, body ache and pain in joints along with fever and chill. As the disease progresses red rash may appear on face, palms, stomach and back. During this period lymph nodes in the region of neck, groin may become enlarged and inflamed. Swollen lymph nodes are non tender.
Sometimes mesenteric lymph nodes may also enlarge and inflame in size with associated pain in abdomen. But this is very rare. The condition may mimic like acute abdomen. Joints become swollen and stiff due to accumulation of fluid. In severe cases patient may present with bleeding from gums and urine.
Patient may have low blood pressure which may lead to organ failure and shock. However, there are very less number of patients who fall seriously ill. Most patients recover gradually after 7 days. They may have mild itching all over body. The lymph nodes may take few more days to subside to its normal size after the infection is cured.
Treatment Of Dengue Fever Lymphadenopathy
Dengue fever is common in tropical countries presenting as febrile illness with severe body and joint pain, lymph gland swelling and tiny pin point red rashes over the body. The disease is usually diagnosed with the help of medical history, clinical examination and blood tests. Usually platelet count and white blood cell count are very low during the active phase of the disease. In majority of cases biopsy of swollen lymph nodes is not needed to confirm the diagnosis of dengue fever lymphadenopathy.
Dengue fever is a self healing illness. Complete bed rest for few days, drinking plenty of fluids and analgesic medicines is sufficient to alleviate the symptoms. However, close monitoring is needed for white blood cell count and platelet count as very low count can cause life threatening bleeding from various orifices. But this complication is less in number. With proper treatment swollen lymph nodes heal after a period of time without leaving any residual damage.