What Causes A Dermoid Cyst? Ovarian Dermoid Symptoms And Treatment

A cyst is an abnormal growth, a closed sac which can develop anywhere in the body. There are several types of cysts and among them a dermoid cyst is a rare form of cyst which develops when the fetus is in mother’s womb. This specific form of cyst contains variety of tissue material such as hair, mature skin glands, bones, nerves, fat tissue etc. The usual site of its occurrence is face, skull, spinal cord and in the ovaries.

Dermoid cyst in the ovaries of a woman usually develops in her child bearing age.

In medical terms, ovarian dermoid cyst is also called benign teratoma. Let us discuss in detail about dermoid cyst in ovaries since it can lead to many problems during her reproductive years. Though rare, among different dermoid cysts, ovarian dermoid cyst is the most prevalent of all.

A dermoid cyst in ovary develops from the primary germ cell. It is complete in its form. It can develop into any form of mature tissue. Therefore you may find variety of tissue growths in this rare form of tumor.

Most ovarian dermoid cyst contains mature form of skin and skin appendages.

This may also include hair, nails, and sebaceous glands; fat etc. Ovarian dermoid cyst in most cases is single. It may be present in both the ovaries.

Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Symptoms

Dermoid cyst in females usually develops between the ages of 15 to 40 years. It means it may develop in women in their reproductive age group. Often a dermoid cyst in ovary remains symptomless. In many other women it may produce symptoms characteristic of dermoid cyst. The cyst may occur in one or both the ovaries.

  • Dermoid cyst of ovary can produce severe pain in pelvis and abdomen if it is enlarged or ruptured or twisted.
  • Patient may complain of painful urination and also urinary retention if the cyst is large in size.
  • Patient may complain of severe menses pain of late, which was not experienced during previous periods.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • If the cyst is large, a woman may gain weight.
  • Abnormal bleeding.

A dermoid cyst is easily diagnosed by an endovaginal ultrasound or with C T scan technique. An ultrasound is a painless procedure. It can easily detect a dermoid cyst of ovary. It also reveals the internal content of the cyst. Most often sonogram is sufficient for the diagnosis. However for a more precise finding CT scan is helpful.

Treatment For Dermoid Cyst In Ovary

Ovarian dermoid cyst should be removed when diagnosed. Though in majority of cases, dermoid cyst is benign, there is small possibility of the cyst becoming cancerous. Therefore removing dermoid cyst of ovary is ideal for all patients, even if it remains asymptomatic.

Depending on the size and its complexity, dermoid cyst of ovary can be removed either through laparotomy or with a laproscope. In laprotomy a long incision is made and the cyst is explored in the pelvic cavity and it is removed by the surgeon. In laparoscopic method, small incisions are made and tubes are passed through which the dermoid cyst is incised and removed.

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