Symptoms Of A Ruptured Kidney Cyst: Its Causes And Treatment

A cyst is a small sac filled with fluid within the wall of its containing cavity. A cyst can develop in several places in the body including the kidney. According to an estimate, many healthy adults have kidney cyst. It may vary in size from a peanut to the size of a ping pong ball. In most cases the cyst is present in one kidney but sometimes both the kidneys can be involved.

Kidney cyst is usually filled with clear or opaque fluid. The growth can be rapid or it can be slow and progressive.

The exact cause how cyst develops in kidney is not clear. However, it is can be an inherited disease or acquired cyst.

Although rare, kidney cyst can rupture. A growing size, trauma, bleeding inside the cyst all can lead to rupture of the cyst. Classical symptoms of ruptured kidney cyst are pain in back, blood in urine, fever, frequent urination. Treatment of ruptured kidney cyst can be conservative if the cyst is small. A large ruptured kidney cyst may need surgical treatment.

What Causes Kidney Cysts To Burst?

Human kidney is a bean shaped organ.

There are two kidneys located on each at the back of abdomen. Besides several function, kidney plays vital role in filtering out and removing the waste from circulating blood. It filters the waste through urine. This it does so with tiny nephrons, the units in kidney. Cyst occurs when the neprons get filled with fluid and enlarge.

Simple cysts are normal in people over the age of 50. Researchers exactly do not know why simple cysts develop. However, it is believed that microscopic damage to the nephrons is responsible for this cyst. Some people suffer from polycystic kidney disease, where there are multiple cysts. It has hereditary origin.

A cyst of whatever type can rupture, although the condition is rare. Several factors contribute for rupture of kidney cyst. They are as follows:

  • Sudden growth of cyst to such an extent that the enlarged cyst has no room left and it ruptures in the kidney. The exact cause of such growth is not known.
  • An existent cyst can rupture due to trauma. An injury can be due to fall from a height or due to trauma from car accident etc. The injury can directly rupture the cyst or may rupture due to bleeding.
  • Because of bleeding in the cyst, the cyst size will enlarge and finally result in rupture.
  • Kidney cyst can rupture due to infection in the cyst. Infection will lead to accumulation of pus and fluid in the cyst. It will grow in size and finally come to the point of rupture. Infection usually spread upwards from the bladder into the kidney.
  • Patients on kidney dialysis usually suffer from renal cyst. They are at greater risk of cyst rupture.

What Happens When A Kidney Cyst Bursts?

Pain is the classical sign of ruptured kidney cyst. The pain usually is located in the flank or may be in the abdomen on the side of renal cyst rupture. Pain of ruptured renal cyst is severe and patient may not get relief in any position. Pain is aggravated when the kidney gets stretched in certain position.

If there is pus of blood in the cyst it can spill in the nearby tissue present in the abdomen leading to peritonitis, a condition where patient has severe pain in abdomen and rebound tenderness.

  • The other most important sign is blood in urine. Urine in such patients appears pink or dark brown or frank red.
  • Lightheadedness can develop due to low blood pressure as a result of significant blood loss through urine.
  • Fever and frequent urination are other sign and symptom of ruptured renal cyst.

Treatment For Ruptured Kidney Cyst

A ruptured kidney cyst is easily diagnosed with the help of ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen. Treatment of ruptured kidney cyst depends on many factors. If the cyst is small and the kidney is functioning normally, the treatment mode in most cases is conservative. The doctor will examine the patient and monitor him closely. He may be given antibiotics and other conservative therapy.

If the ruptured cyst is large and the kidney is functioning normally, then the doctor may proceed for surgery and excise the cystic lesion without removing the kidney. However, if the ruptured cyst is large and the kidney is not functioning properly, the kidney as well as the cyst may be removed of the affected side.