Nesidioblastosis of pancreas is a condition in which there is abnormal rise of insulin like growth factor 11. It is a protein essential for growth. The problem lies with abnormality in pancreatic function. Pancreas produce high amount of insulin which starts circulating in blood. This leads to extreme low level of blood sugar.
The disease is more common in newborn and children than in adults. Adults having history of chronic pancreatitis and those who have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at greater risk of contracting the condition.
Symptoms of nesidioblastosis consist of dizziness, pain in abdomen, frequent urination, blurring of vision etc.It occurs due to low level of glucose. Nesidioblastosis of pancreas is treated conservatively with medications. Surgery is another option in severe form of the disease. Most cases of nesidioblastosis have good prognosis.
Causes And Risk Factors For Nesidioblastosis
The exact etiology of nesidioblastosis of pancreas is obscure. This disease can occur since birth or may develop later in life. It is a serious metabolic condition characterized by excess of insulin in blood due to abnormal functioning of islet of langerhans present in pancreas.
The defect lies in the beta cells of islet of langerhans which are the main cells to produce insulin in pancreas.Researchers also suspect genetic mutation to be one of the causes. There are several risk factors such as;
- Newborn babies born to mothers suffering from diabetes.
- Cystic fibrosis of pancreas.
- Chronic pancreatitis.
- Gastric bypass surgery
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Signs And Symptoms Of Nesidioblastosis
Nesidioblastosis is a serious disease affecting the beta cells of pancreas. As the pancreas is affected, there is imbalance created in insulin secretion which is released in high amount. This has its effect on the blood glucose level. It drops markedly leading to several symptoms those of hypoglycemia.
Below are given signs and symptoms of nesidioblastosis:
- Severe sweating
- Nausea and vomiting
- Blurring of vision
- Frequent urination
- Increase in heart rate
- Trembling of hands and legs.
- Numbness in hands and legs.
- Pain in abdomen and back.
- Too much thirsty and hungry.
- Sudden loss of weight without any apparent reason.
- Seizures and loss of consciousness due to low blood sugar.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Nesidioblastosis
Following test helps to diagnose nesidioblastosis of pancreas.
- Medical history and physical examination.
- Complete blood count.
- Insulin and glucose level in blood.
- Ultrasongraphy of abdomen.
- CT and MRI scan of abdomen.
- Fine needle biopsy of the tumor.
- Serum amylase test
Nesidioblastosis of pancreas can develop in infants, children as well as adults. Children usually need constant monitoring of the condition. But if there is persistent hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia there is risk of brain damage and mental retardation in children. Sometimes they need intensive treatment which may consist of pancreatectomy or removal of part or complete pancreas.
Adults need treatment in most cases. Patient is usually treated depending on the severity of disease. Majority of people suffering from this condition are first treated with medicines that help to control hypoglycemia and its symptoms.
If medications fail to act and there is recurrent episode of hypoglycemia, patient may need surgical intervention. Surgery is performed to remove pancreas partially or completely depending on the tumor size.