A lesion is damage to certain part of the body tissue caused as a result of infection or an injury or due to some unknown cause. Brain lesion is an area of damage in the brain tissue. The reason for brain lesion can be either a disease process or an injury. Brain lesions can be of many types.
They can be small brain lesions that involve very small portion of brain tissue, or it can be a larger one involving major part of the brain. There can be multiple brain lesions at the same time or it can be a single lesion.
In some cases brain lesions can cause little harm to the body while some brain lesions can have fatal consequences.
What Causes Brain Lesions?
Brain lesions are caused due to an injury to the brain, or an infection or toxic effect of chemicals, autoimmune disease or progressive neurological disease, congenital malformation, idiopathic.
- Congenital malformation of the brain: The brain lesion is present since birth or it is developed during the fetal brain development in early pregnancy. Chiari malformation or atriovenous malformation leading to improper supply to the brain and leaking of the blood in the brain tissue. The lesion can be diagnosed after birth as it presents with neurological deficits or they can be detected later in life when they produce some symptoms.
- Infarction: A certain part of the brain tissue dies due to stoppage of blood supply either due to hemorrhage or due to atherosclerosis of the small arteries supplying the brain area. This type of brain lesion is caused due stroke.
- Head injury and surgery: Both can damage brain tissue and cause brain lesions.
- Infection: An abscess in the brain usually as a complication of ear or nose infection can be another cause of brain lesion.
- Brain Tumors: It is an abnormal growth of a normal brain tissue. Some tumors are benign and some tumors are cancerous.
- Multiple sclerosis: In this autoimmune condition the brain cells are gradually destroyed over a period of time. It results into progressive physical disability.
- Other known cause of brain lesions are Parkinson’s disease, Alzeihmer’s disease, hydrocephalus, meningitis, cerebral malaria etc.
Symptoms Of Lesion On The Brain
The symptoms of brain lesions are many and they depend on the site, location and the size the tissue involved. Certain common symptoms that are usually observed in most types of brain lesions are:
- Pain in the neck and difficulty in movement of the neck in other words it is called stiff neck. It is usually observed in meningitis and brain hemorrhage.
- Projectile vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Raised temperature
- Mood change
- Facial paralysis
- Lethargy and confusion
- Blurred vision or sudden loss of vision.
- Paralysis of limbs one sided or both sided.
Prognosis For Brain Lesions
Prognosis of brain lesions depends on what type of lesion it is. If the tumor is cancerous the prognosis is bad.
- In meningitis and brain abscess, with the advent of modern day medications the prognosis is good.
- In brain infarction the prognosis depends on the site involved.
- In hemorrhage the prognosis is not very good.
- Parkinson’s disease, Alzeihmer’s disease, Multiple sclerosis do not have permanent cure and they progress gradually from bad to worse.