Human appetite is regulated by complex mechanism of several factors. Your appetite is governed by the appetite center in the brain. It is not your stomach or intestine that particularly determines when to eat food. The brain is super specialty center which configures and analyzes several signals relayed by hormones, nerves, and psychological pathways for determining when you need to eat food.
Many people feel hungrier when they get up in the morning after a late night full meal. Researchers have found this occurs because of the physiological changes that take place in the body during the whole 8 hours when you sleep.
Physiological Mechanism Of Hunger
The physiological mechanism of hunger and satiety is centered inside the delicate part of the brain called brain stem and hypothalamus. The brain cells in both this part acknowledge to several substances in the body which include the hormones, nerve signals from the intestine, rise and fall of blood sugar level in the body etc. The hormones ghrelin and leptin as well as thyroid hormones play an active role for onset of hunger and satiety.
Any fluctuation in these hormones or glucose level in blood can contribute several responses pertaining to appetite and hunger.If your blood sugar level falls, the hormone ghrelin soon comes into play and triggers hunger center in brain. In the same way if the rise of glucose level in the blood, the hormone leptin signals the brain to suppress the appetite. In addition the hormone insulin released by pancreas also has an influential role.
Effect Of Insulin On Hunger
Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreas. Pancreas is a gland situated at the back of stomach. Besides insulin, pancreas also secretes many digestive juices that are useful for digestion and breakdown of food. When you eat food pancreas starts releasing insulin. It stimulates the cells of different tissues and organs to absorb glucose present in the blood.
Glucose is utilized as an energy source for the cells. But as the glucose level reduces in the blood after its absorption into the cells, body sends signal to the pancreas and other gland to produce another hormone called glucagon which is meant to trigger the brain center to respond and meet the requirement of glucose. Thus brain sends signal for hunger.
Causes Of Hunger In The Morning After A Late Dinner
Many people feel more hunger after eating a heavy meal at night. This may have its physiological implications. When you eat a heavy meal late at night, especially a sugary, meal with lots of carbohydrates, your pancreas releases insulin in plenty. This hormone does its work by making glucose available for each and every cell of the body even when you are asleep.
As the glucose in blood is utilized a counter effect is generated which triggers another set of hormone to trigger hunger. Since you are asleep, you may not feel the hunger, but as soon as you get up, you will feel hungry because of the stimulated appetite center in the brain.