Majority of people suffering from chronic liver damage are known to have diabetes or high level of blood glucose. Diabetes developing due to liver damage is also called hepatogenous diabetes. When liver is chronically damaged the cells and damaged tissues are not replaced by normal tissue. But in this area scar tissue is formed which has no function to play.
Chronic liver damage causes a condition called cirrhosis. Most patients suffering from cirrhosis are known to suffer from glucose intolerance which ultimately leads to high blood sugar level or diabetes. Cirrhosis causes irreversible damage to liver.Chronic alcoholism, hepatitis B and C and non fatty liver are prominent reasons for cirrhosis of liver.
Causes Of High Blood Glucose Levels In Liver Damage
The hormone insulin is secreted by a gland called pancreas. The main function of insulin is to carry and make available glucose circulating in blood to each and every cell and tissue. Insulin that remains back is processed and disposed off by the liver. However, when the liver is damaged less insulin is disposed off leading to a condition called hyperinsulinemia. Patients having too much of insulin in circulating blood due to chronic liver failure produces insulin resistance in the muscles.This means that glucose that is circulating in blood is not able to be utilized properly by muscle cells. As a result excess of glucose keeps on circulating in the blood raising the level of blood glucose.
After insulin muscle resistance, liver also develops resistance to insulin when it is chronically damaged. As the liver becomes insulin resistant, it loses its power to convert glucose into glycogen which is stored in the liver. Normally liver is the storehouse of glucose in the form of glycogen. When body needs energy, the stored glucose is released by liver which is carried away to cells with the help of insulin. When the whole process of conversion is affected, circulating blood sugar level rises. This normally occurs after a meal in patients suffering from chronic liver damage.
Liver damage can subsequently cause damage to the islet of langerhans. These are the primary cells in the pancreas which are responsible for production of insulin hormone. When there is insulin resistance in muscles as well as in liver due to chronic liver damage, the increased glucose in the blood causes damage to the islet cells of pancreas. When islet cells are damaged, less insulin is secreted and made available to glucose in blood. This leads to reflective diabetes.