A normal human spine is straight. Scoliosis is spinal deformity in which the spine curves to the lateral side of body. In dextroscoliosis, the spinal curvature is on right side. If the spine curves towards left side, the condition is referred as levoscoliosis. You can see many people having scoliosis of spine. At least 3 to 4 people out of 100 are known to be scoliotic. And among them dextroscoliosis deformity is more common than the other variety. In scoliosis the spine is “C” or “S” shaped and not straight. The area mainly affected is the thoracic vertebra of the spine.Scoliosis usually develops during the adolescence years, especially when there is spurt in growth of an individual. It is more common in girls. The cause in most cases is unknown. Family history of scoliosis increases the risk for development of scoliosis. Besides the abnormal curvature of the spine, severe dextroscoliosis can lead to shortness in breath, back pain, neck pain and pain in chest. Treatment consists of use of braces, physical therapy exercises and surgical repair of the spine if the conservative measures fail.
Scoliosis can develop due to several causes. However, in most cases the cause remains undetected.Such type of scoliosis is called idiopathic scoliosis. Almost 80 percent of scoliosis is idiopathic. Many others are known to have family history of scoliosis. A person is at greater risk of developing scoliosis if he has someone in the family with the same problem. There are small numbers of people who suffer from scoliosis for causes other then mentioned. These causes include congenital variety. In congenital scoliosis, the deformity occurs during the development of fetus. These patients may also suffer from other associated anomalies of heart and kidney. Neuromuscular scoliosis is a type of scoliosis which can arise from neurological diseases such as cerebral palsy or muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy. It can also occur due to injury to the spinal cord. Degenerative scoliosis as the name suggests is causes from degenerative bone diseases such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylosis, fracture of vertebra etc.
Scoliosis usually is more common in girls, especially in adolescence age group. The cause for this is not known.
Symptoms of Dextroscoliosis
Many patients having dextroscoliosis do not experience any signs and symptoms. But on examination a spinal deformity is easily apparent. The most common symptom of dextroscoliosis is abnormal curvature of the spine on right side of the back. Usually the deformity is noticed in young age by afamily member or the physician. In the initial period the change is slow and progressive hence it becomes difficult to detect easily. It is more apparent only when the condition becomes severe. Person with dextroscoliosis will experience:
- Disparity in the height of shoulder. One shoulder is higher than the other.
- Prominence of right sided shoulder blade.
- Ribs on the side of defect are more prominent than on the other side.
- The waistline is not perfect but more tilted to one. The other side is lower.
- “S” shaped curve of the spine is easily noticeable instead of straight spine.
- Head leans towards one side and it does not stay in the middle.
- Actually the whole body tilts towards one side.
- Certain movement such as tilting, bending becomes difficult and painful.
In person having severe form of dextroscoliosis, there may be some other damage to nearby organs. For example, person may have difficulty in breathing, pain in chest, pain in back and hip joint, and in severe form there may be loss of control over urine and stool.
Dextroscoliosis is easily diagnosed during the examination. However, to support the diagnosis, the physician may ask for X-ray of spine and chest. He may also recommend MRI of spine.
Treatment of dextroscoliosis is conservative in majority of cases. However, if the defect is severe surgical repair may be necessary. At first if the angle of curvature is less, the physician will just monitor the patient twice in a year. If the curvature of spine becomes more tilted towards the right in dextroscoliosis, he may suggest use if brace to support the spine. The use of brace is to prevent worsening of the spinal curvature but it will not be effective in correcting the curve.
Often physical exercises are recommended to patients with scoliosis. This helps the spine to remain more mobile and flexible. The purpose is to make the daily life easier for the patient. Exercises such as stretching up of arm, cat stretch, side stretch, pelvic tilt exercise, bending on left side etc are beneficial.
Surgery is required in case the condition is severe. The most common surgery involves fusion of spine. In the procedure the defective vertebra of the spine are removed and fused together so that the spine is realigned appropriately.