Foods to be permitted in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus have to be categorized into measured and unmeasured diet.
Essential requirements to be maintained are:
- Adequate caloric value.
- Balanced food with respect to protein, carbohydrate and fats.
- A permissive diet for elderly.
- Food intake to be divided into regularly spaced meals of similar size.
- Food should be high in fiber, which slows glucose absorption and soothes post prandial glucose levels.
Unmeasured Diabetes Type 2 Diet
Diabetes in many newly diagnosed patients especially obese can be controlled by simple limitation of certain foods. Due to the simplicity of this form of diet, it should be tried in suitable patients especially elderly.
- Foods to be completely avoided by Type 2 Diabetics are sugar, glucose, jams, honey, syrups, tinned food, sweets, chocolates, lemonade, proprietary milk preparations and similar foods which are sweetened with sugar like cakes, sweet biscuits, pies, puddings and thick sauces etc.
- Foods allowed in moderation for Diabetic Type 2 are breads of all kinds (including slimming and starch reduced breads like brown or white), rolls, biscuits, crisp breads, potatoes, peas and baked beans. Breakfast cereals and porridge, macaroni, spaghetti and foods with much flour and also thick soups and milk is also allowed in moderation.
- Type 2 Diabetes Foods to be eaten as desired are all meats, fish, eggs, clear soups, meat extract, tomato or lemon juice, tea or coffee. Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, turnip, French beans, onions, leeks or mushrooms, lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, spring onions, radish, asparagus and parsley. Herbs, spices pepper, salt, mustard all these can be taken as desired.
Measured Diet For Type 2 Diabetics
It is required for the following Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients:
- Who are on insulin or on oral hypoglycemic drugs and to whom unmeasured diet has proved unsatisfactory.
- Those who are obese and require strict diet regimen.
For the first category patients, a diet with 1800 kcal is suitable where in 230 gm of carbohydrates, 72 gm of proteins and 66 gm of fats should be provided.
- For these estimations, Atwater calories conversion factors of 4, 4 and 9 kcal/gm of carbohydrate, protein and fat respectively is used.
- Each carbohydrate exchange contains about than 10 gm of carbohydrate, 1.5 gm of protein and 0.3 gm of fats. Its caloric value is around 50 (which is equal to 20 gm of bread).
- Each protein exchange has approximately 7 gms of protein and 5 gm of fat with caloric value of 70 (equivalent to about 30 gm of meat).
- Each fat exchange has approximately 12 gm of fats and no carbohydrates and proteins. Caloric value is 110 (equivalent to half an ounce of butter).
- 1 pint milk has approximately 30 gm of carbohydrate, 18 gm of proteins and 24 gm fats. Caloric value is around 400.
A diet prescription for about 230 gm carbohydrates and 1800 kcal can be calculated as below:
- Daily intake of carbohydrates (about 230 gm) represents 23 carbohydrates exchanges.
- Daily allowance of milk is decided for e.g. 400 ml has two carbohydrate exchanges and balance 21 exchanges for distribution during the day.
- Then daily protein allowance is decided as – 4 exchanges will give 280 kcal.
- Allocated calories so far amount to 1590, extra 290 kcal are required to make it to 1800 kcal. It has to be provided by fats, and as 1 fat exchange gives 110 kcal, 2 fat exchanges are needed.
- Finally the exchanges (23 carbohydrates, 4 proteins and 2 fats) are distributed throughout day, according to eating habits and daily routine of person.
For the second category of patients, who are mostly obese, a low energy (calorie) diet is to be prescribed.
A daily allowance of 900 to 1000 kcal is to be provided (100 gm carbohydrate, 60 gm protein and 40 gm fat is to be provided).
Sample Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Diet
- Early morning – one cup of light tea (2 teaspoon milk with no sugar).
- Break fast– milk (skimmed or toned) 3/4 glass approximately 150 ml without sugar and 2 slices of bread.
- 10 am – one fruit serving with apple, papaya, orange or watermelon etc.
- Lunch– one large bowl of thin vegetable soup (without butter), one bowl salad – cabbage, cucumber, onion, carrot and tomato, one bowl cooked vegetables or thin pulses and thin butter milk.
- 4 pm – light tea without sugar, one slice of bread or a fruit to be taken.
- Dinner – thin soup, fresh salad, boiled vegetables, 2 slices of bread with vegetables, 1 bowl thin pulses, thin butter milk.
- Bed time – skimmed milk half glass.