Vector borne diseases are transmitted by vectors, usually arthropods, by their stings and bites or infestations of tissues. They are invertebrate living animals. However vertebrates such as foxes, skunks, dogs etc, can also cause infections such as rabies with their bite.
There are several arthropods which are responsible for vector borne disease, but mosquito and ticks are the most common arthropods to spread the disease.
Vector Borne Disease Transmission
The transmission of vector borne disease is through a bite by infected blood feeding arthropods as in case of mosquito bite, where the pathogen is transmitted by the mosquito during a blood meal.
- Mechanical transmission can also be possible in some instances when the arthropod carries the pathogens physically from one place to another.
- Transmission of vector borne disease is from one infected person to other via the vector; it acts as an intermediate for the transmission of the pathogen.
- Geographically most of the vector borne disease is prevalent in tropical and subtropical climate.
Most Common Vector Borne Diseases
Name of some of the common vector borne disease are: malaria, dengue fever, viral encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, plague, sleeping sickness, lyme disease, leishmaniasis etc.
- Vector borne parasitic diseases are malaria, lyme disease.
- Vector borne bacterial disease includes plague etc.
- Vector borne viral diseases are dengue fever, chikungunya virus fever, Japanese encephalitis etc.
Control Of Arthropod Borne Disease
Eradication of the vector borne diseases is not possible and therefore control measure is the key in preventing the spread of disease.
It can be done by targeting the arthropod vector. Personal protection can be done with house screens, bed nets, and insect repellents. Chemical and biological methods should be applied to kill the larvae of the arthropod. Monitoring at entry and exit point such as airports and ports can help to eliminate the spread of vector borne disease. Vaccines in some cases can help to control the spread as in case of yellow fever.