Genetic Disorders In Children: Types And Causes Of Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders in children are the diseases that are inherited and passed down in every family generation and are caused by different gene variation, alterations, and mutations. There are many types of Genetic disorders found in children.

Types Of Genetic Disorders In Children

  • Single Gene Disorder. Examples of this are cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Marfan’s Syndrome. The most common among disorders, occur due to alterations or mutations in the DNA of a single gene
  • Multi-factorial or AKA Polygenic. Examples of this are asthma, diabetes, cancer, heart defects, cleft lip or palate, and neural tube defect.
    This occurs with the combination of environmental factors and its effect to genes causing mutations in multiple genes.
  • Chromosomal Abnormalities. Examples of this are Down’s syndrome and Turner’s syndrome. This occurs when a deletion of a part of the chromosome, inversion of a piece of the chromosome and translocation happens
  • Mitochondrial mutations. As the name suggests, its occurrence is in the mitochondria. particularly in the non-chromosomal DNA of the mitochondria

Fatal Genetic Disorders in Children

  • Tay-Sachs Disease, Niemann-Pick Disease (Type A), Trisomy 18 and 13, and Cystic Fibrosis are some of fatal genetic disorders in children.

Causes Of Genetic Disorders In Children

  • Abnormality in the genetic composition and is passed on from parents to child
  • Mutation or variation of gene or alteration of gene
  • Abnormalities of the genes or chromosomes
  • Inherited gene defects

Dealing With Genetic Disorder

  • Genetic counseling are recommended to some to educate them on how to deal with the risks of the disease
  • Tests can also be made to let the parents know if their newborn is carrying a genetic disorder
  • Professional counsellors play a great part in helping the family cope with the disease affecting their child and aid them in decision making