A hematoma is collection of blood which has leaked out from the blood vessel into the surrounding tissue space. Hematoma can occur in any organ of the body. When a pocket of blood forms in the extra-vascular space of oral cavity the condition is called oral hematoma.
Oral hematoma can occur due to traumatic injury in or outside of the mouth. It is one of the complications after major dental as well as other oral surgeries. The blood vessel may be damaged by the needle while giving local anesthesia or while drilling or with a knife.Oral hematoma can also develop if you bite on the lip or on the cheek.
The risk of hematoma increases if the patient is taking blood thinning medication. Blood thinner such as aspirin, heparin prevents the blood to clot, which in turn increases the possibility of oral hematoma after a surgical work inside the mouth. In some cases raised blood pressure can cause hematoma during and after oral surgery.
Certain blood disorders where the clotting mechanism is hampered can increase the risk of oral hematoma even after minor injury to the blood vessel.Oral hematomas usually are self resolving, it may take few days or weeks for resolution of hematoma. However, it is necessary to consult the oral surgeon if the hematoma is large or if it is painful.
Symptoms Of Oral Hematoma
Hematoma is just like a bruise the only difference is that a bruise is flat while a hematoma produces a bulge due to collection of blood. It can be appreciated by touching and it visible too. Oral hematoma can be a large or small depending on the severity of injury to the blood vessel.
Hematoma can develop inside the gums or on the floor of mouth. It seldom develops on the upper palate due to density of tissues. The skin or the mucus membrane gets discolored, it turns blue or purple. If hematoma is large it can compress nearby tissues and nerves leading to pain.
A large hematoma after surgery can separate the stitches and the wound may bleed. The swelling and pain usually reduces within one or two weeks, depending on the size of hematoma. Due to swelling the patient may find inconvenience while chewing food. He may find difficult to chew solid food.
How To Get Rid Of Hematoma In Oral Cavity?
In most cases the oral hematoma resolves spontaneously without any treatment within few days or weeks depending on the size as well as the site. Collection of blood in gums may take longer time to reabsorb. A large oral hematoma may require treatment.
- Applying ice pack in initial stage will help to reduce the size of hematoma.
- If hematoma is large and if it obstructs chewing and eating, the doctor may have to incise and drain it.
- Anti inflammatory medicine may be recommended for a small size hematoma. However, some anti inflammatory drugs have properties to thin the blood therefore consult the physician before taking such drugs.
- Turmeric and honey have natural anti inflammatory properties. A pinch of turmeric powder and one teaspoon of honey in milk is beneficial in accelerating the absorption of hematoma.
- Homeopathic medicines such as arnica, ruta, are beneficial in reducing pain and inflammation.
- Sometimes antibiotics are also required to prevent secondary bacterial infection.