Elevated Serum Glucose: Causes, Symptoms And How To Lower It?

Glucose is main energy source for each and every cell in the body. Serum glucose is referred to as level of glucose circulating in the blood. Serum glucose test or blood sugar test is common test to determine the level of glucose in the blood. It helps the physician to evaluate whether blood glucose is elevated, low or within the normal range.

High level of serum glucose is mainly associated with diabetes. It can also temporarily rise in stress, illnesses and with intake of certain medications. Increased frequency of urine, excessive hunger, increased thirst and perspiration, sudden weight loss are some of the signs and symptoms of high blood sugar.

If you experience any of these symptoms, consult your physician to rule out diabetes and its further complications. Elevated serum glucose is simple disorder and not a disease. Blood glucose level can be brought within normal range with change in lifestyle, eating healthy food, exercising and medication if you are diabetic.

What Causes Elevated Serum Glucose?

Glucose in your bloodstream enters from the food that you eat or from the liver that stores glucose. Normal amount of glucose is always present in the blood. The ideal normal range of fasting blood glucose is between 90-130mg/dl and between 120-140mg/dl 2 hours after meal.

Anything above 140 mg/dl is considered to be elevated level. There are several factors which can cause hyperglycemia.

  • Diabetes: Elevated blood glucose level is associated with diabetes. In diabetes the fasting blood glucose is above 120mg/dl and post meal glucose level is more than 160mg/dl. Elevated glucose level occurs either due to insulin resistance or less secretion of insulin from the pancreas. The subsequent development of hyperglycemia if not treated can lead to many complications in a long run. It can damage the kidneys, lead to retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers etc.
  • There are subsets of people who have raised glucose level that is not remarkably high to be labeled as diabetes. These people are referred as prediabetics because over a period of time most of them progress to become diabetics. These persons are called hyperglycemic individuals who are prone to become diabetics in future. These people are also prone to have high triglyceride level as there is problem in metabolizing fats.
  • People with fatty liver develop high level of blood sugar. One of the reasons for fatty liver is obesity. Chronic alcoholism, certain prescription drugs and rapid loss of weight also leads to fatty liver. Fatty liver is characterized by excessive deposition of fats in liver.
  • Certain other factors can also increase glucose level in blood such as stress, malnourishment, chronic kidney failure, liver diseases, pancreatic cancer, infections and pregnancy.

Symptoms Of High Serum Glucose

The symptoms of elevated glucose level are as follows:

  • Increased perspiration
  • Increased thirst. Patient sometimes wakes up from his sleep to drink water.
  • Frequent urge to urinate.
  • Hungry all the time
  • Severe tiredness
  • Weight loss without any reason.
  • Delay in healing of cuts and wounds.
  • Increased rate of skin infection, especially fungus skin infection.
  • Tingling in feet and hands.
  • Blurred vision
  • Recurrent infection in bladder.
  • Burning in soles
  • Prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia can result in diabetic foot ulcers.

How To Lower High Serum Glucose Levels?

The aim to lower high serum glucose is to bring it as near to normal as possible. Modifying lifestyle and eating pattern plays important role in lowering high blood glucose.

  • Exercising regularly increases metabolic rate and helps to burn away extra glucose circulating in the blood. Walking, swimming, cycling, jogging, etc are good exercises to reduce elevated blood sugar.
  • Reduce intake of simple carbohydrates. Instead opt for food containing complex carbohydrates such as grains, cereals, vegetables, fruits, and several other fiber containing food items. Reduce or avoid eating sugary food, cakes and pastries, ice creams, soft drinks and colas as they are loaded with simple sugar.
  • If you are diabetic, take anti diabetic medicines as recommended by the doctor.
  • Sleep for at least 7 to 8 hours in day. Regular sound sleep helps to increase metabolic activity which has a role to play in lowering high serum glucose.
  • Take small portions of meal at least 5 times in a day instead of 3 large meals.
  • Avoid stress as it is one of the factors to produce high sugar in blood.