Protein S deficiency and protein C deficiency are blood clotting disorders. The patient having this problem is predisposed to excessive blood clots in the vein. Although a rare condition, patient has to face many problems, especially a woman when she is pregnant.
Vitamin K Deficiency
Protein S deficiency is a hereditary or an acquired disorder. The disorder has two variations mild and asymptomatic or severe and dangerous.
Protein S and C are vitamin K dependant glycoproteins, they act as natural blood thinner (anticoagulant). Protein S acts as a cofactor to protein C. Together the action of these proteins increases many fold in keeping the blood thin.
Protein S and C needs vitamin K for its synthesis; it is mainly produced in liver.
Deficiency Of Protein C And S
Hereditary protein S deficiency is caused due to genetic mutation, and acquired cause is due to vitamin K deficiency, liver disease, kidney disease, sickle cell anemia, HIV, disseminated intravascular clotting.
Protein S is also reduced in pregnancy. The risk of thromboembolism increases when the woman is pregnant with protein S and protein C deficiency. As such there is a natural rise of clotting factor during pregnancy, the deficiency of these S and C proteins will create more problems in such women.
Protein S Deficiency And Pregnancy
Protein S and C deficiency may cause risk to fetus in the later stage of the pregnancy. The other conditions faced by pregnant woman may be preeclampsia, abruptio placenta, growth retardation of the fetus.
Woman who has previous history of fetal loss, abruptio placenta, should test for protein S and C before planning next pregnancy.
The chances of pulmonary embolism and DIC are very high in pregnant women, who are having protein S or /and protein C deficiency. Doctors therefore prescribe anticoagulants in such a condition to prevent abnormal clotting and further complications.