The inner layer of uterus is called endometrium. Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissues of inner layer (endometrium) of uterus grow outside of the uterine cavity. In this condition the endometrial lining infiltrates to other adjacent organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tube and in some cases even over the bowels. Since the ovaries are located near the uterus, the endometrial tissue tends to grow in the ovaries in majority cases.The tissue that grows elsewhere is called endometrial implant.
The tissues outside behave in the same way as that of endometrium in the uterus. With each menstrual cycle it grows, becomes thick and breaks down. Inside the ovary the bleeding gets trapped and forms a mass called chocolate cyst. It may cause severe pain during menses with other severe symptoms. Sometimes the ovarian cyst can rupture producing severe symptoms.
Symptoms Of Ruptured Ovaries Due To Endometriosis
Rupture of ovaries due to endometriosis can cause serious symptoms.
- Pain is the first symptom to occur due to rupture. It is severe and sudden in onset. Actually pain does not arise from the rupture itself, but occurs from blood and shed endometrial tissue that lies in the cyst. After its release, the debris irritates and inflames the lining of peritoneum. As a result the abdomen becomes tender to touch. Peritoneum is the lining of abdominal cavity.
- As the condition worsens, patient may manifest symptoms of acute abdomen. There is rigidity and guarding of the abdomen when the physician palpates during physical examination. Patient does not allow palpation because of pain. Abdomen is distended and the bowel sound is absent or not clear. Vomiting and nausea are other usual accompanying symptoms.
- The other symptoms are systemic manifested due to inflammation and irritation caused due to peritonitis. Patient complains of fever, increased sweating, increased rate of heart beats and pulse, severe fatigue, dizziness and confusion. Sometimes low blood pressure is remarkable when there is severe blood loss.
Diagnosis & Treatment For Ruptured Cysts On Ovaries
Clinical examination, medical history and certain blood and radiological tests help to diagnose the condition. Sonography and MRI are two important radiological tests that are important for the diagnosis. Patient may have severe guarding of the abdomen due to peritonitis caused by irritation of the peritoneum. Blood tests such as complete blood count will reveal raised white blood cell count.
Rupture of ovary is one of the complications that may develop due to endometrial ovarian cyst. The main aim of treatment is to alleviate the symptoms and treat potential other complications arising from the condition. In most cases the cyst is removed surgically. Often the cyst is removed laproscopically with a small incision.
If the cyst is very large or there are multiple large cysts that have been ruptured, the affected ovary is removed. This procedure is called oopherectomy. Surgical removal of the ovary is not risky, but to prevent infection antibiotics are prescribed after the surgery. During the surgery all the adhesions and scar tissue are also removed.