Nesidioblastosis of pancreas is a condition in which there is abnormal rise of insulin like growth factor 11. It is a protein essential for growth. The problem lies with abnormality in pancreatic function. Pancreas produce high amount of insulin which …

Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome is a rare disorder which is characterized by dysfunction of bone marrow and pancreas. This leads to anemia, low platelet count, diabetes and failure to thrive. This syndrome was first described by a hematologist named Howard …

MALT lymphoma is a type of cancer affecting the lymphatic system of the body. It is a non –Hodgkin lymphoma. MALT is a short term used for mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Mucosa is a tissue that lines many organs …

Angioleiomyoma is a non cancerous small sized tumor involving smooth muscles of blood vessels (arteries and veins). It has an affinity to develop just below the skin surface. It is a slow growing soft tissue lesion mainly present in lower …

Liver metastasis is cancer in liver that has its primary origin somewhere else in the body such as breast, stomach, lung etc. In majority of cases, cancer of liver is in metastatic form. The peculiarity of liver metastases is that …

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious brain related disorder which can lead to stroke and sometime death of a person. The disease is caused due to hemorrhage in subarachnoid space that surrounds the brain. Between the skull and the brain, there …

Human stomach is a J shaped organ which is attached to esophagus on its upper side and distally with duodenum (first part of small intestine). Benign stomach tumors are non cancerous growths in stomach. They do not metastasize or infiltrate …

Gallbladder is small pear shaped hollow bag sitting just underneath the liver. Its main function is to store bile secreted by liver, besides other waste products. The bile stored in gallbladder gets emptied into the small intestine through a small …

There are two types of intestine in human body; namely the small and large intestine. Both are part of alimentary canal. The small intestine is a long hollow muscular tube which helps in digestion and secretion of food. It begins …

Duodenum is the first part of small intestine. It is C shaped tube almost 12 inches long extending from the lower end of stomach. The other end of duodenum continues into jejunum which is the second part of small intestine. …

Most surgeons frequently encounter appendicitis in their daily clinical practice. Acute appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Appendix is a small finger like hollow tube situated at the junction of small and large intestine at the right lower side of

Retrosternal chest pain is pain behind the sternum bone. This flat bone is located in middle of the chest. We often refer it as the breastbone. Retrosternal pain can be quiet severe sometime disrupting day to day life of a …

Ureters are long narrow tubes each attached to one kidney at its upper end and bladder at the lower end, functions to carry urine from kidney to bladder. Ureters are usually not focused upon much in diseases of the urinary …

Esophagus is a long hollow muscular tube that forms a passage for food and liquid between the mouth and stomach. It is situated behind the windpipe (trachea) and the heart. It is in front of the spine. Normally food and …

Blood is highly complex fluid made up of important components that include red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelet. Each component has vital role such as the red cells carry oxygen, while white blood cells defend against diseases, …

Gastric volvulus is an abnormal twisting of stomach at an angle of more than 180 degrees in different planes. It is rare but potentially life threatening stomach disorder classically presenting with severe and intolerable pain in epigastrium, persistent retching and …

A parasite is an organism that lives inside the body or on the skin surface of a host. It depends on the other living organism for food and shelter. Parasites infect over billions of human beings all over the globe. …

Phenylalanine is one of the nine essential amino acids. Amino acids are very important building blocks for protein. L phenylalanine is one form of phenylalanine available naturally in foods. Just like other essential amino acids phenylalanine in not prepared in …

Perforated peptic ulcer is one of the most common but deadly gastrointestinal complications having high mortality rate. Peptic ulcer is a term used for ulcers in stomach and/or duodenum the first part of small intestine. An ulcer is open lesion …

Hodgkin’s disease is a unique cancer affecting the lymph glands. The lymph glands are the part of lymphatic system, a constituent of immune system of the body. The lymph nodes are connected with each other through a chain of lymphatic …