Selective mutism is a type of anxiety disorder in which the affected person cannot speak in a particular situation or with a particular person despite his capability of speaking normally. Although perceived to be a disorder of children, selective mutism …

Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare disease that occurs when too much of fibrous tissue and chronic inflammation begins to develop in the retroperitoneal cavity of abdomen. It is the area at the back of stomach and intestine. Fibrosis is excess …

Abdominal adhesions are fibrous scar tissues that adhere to structures present in the abdomen. This includes various organs in the abdominal cavity and the abdominal wall. Normally the tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity slide smoothly against each other …

Urolithiasis is a medical term used for stones or calculi developing in organs of urinary tract. Urinary stones form mainly in kidney, ureter and bladder. They develop from substances present in urine. These stones are made up of calcium oxalate …

Subcutaneous emphysema develops when air gets trapped in the subcutaneous layer underneath the shin. Subcutaneous in medical literature means beneath the skin and trapped air is referred as emphysema. Because air enters from chest, subcutaneous emphysema generally occurs in chest …

Myxofibrosarcoma is a soft tissue malignant sarcoma. It is also referred as a myxoid variety of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Myxofibrosarcoma is invariably seen in elderly people typically involving arm and legs. The tumor is observed more in legs than …

Acanthocytosis is abnormal form of red blood cells (RBC). These red blood cells have spiny projections on its surface membrane. The peculiar change occurs as a result of alteration in the fat content of the cellular membrane of red blood …

Angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor comprising of blood vessels, fatty tissue and smooth muscles. Angiomyolipoma of stomach is not as common as angiomyolipoma of kidney. Both adult men and women are equally affected by this benign growth. Most angiomyolipoma of …

Metabolic encephalopathy is the term used to describe damage to the brain caused due to serious impairment of body’s metabolic activity. The damage can be temporary or permanent. Systemic diseases such as diabetes, cirrhosis of liver, kidney failure, heart failure …

Cholecystitis is inflammation of the wall of gallbladder that results in pain in right upper quadrant of abdomen along with tenderness. Chronic cholecystitis is inflammation of gallbladder that persists for long period of time. Person suffering from chronic cholecystitis has …

Pneumothorax is a medical term which means air in the pleural space. It is a space between the lungs and chest wall. Tension pneumothorax occurs when air gets accumulated in this space under pressure and gets trapped. It leads to …

Skene’s gland cancer is a rare malignant tumor of skene’s gland which is situated near the opening of female urethra. It is also called adenocarcinoma of Skene’s gland. The disease mainly occurs in elderly females. Skene’s glands are considered homologus …

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is an inherited rare disorder affecting the renal system. This condition is mainly seen in people of Japanese, European and Iceland origin. The condition is characterized by repeated formation of stones in kidney and urinary tract. …

Barbiturates are group of drugs that are mainly used to calm and relax mind and induce sleep. It acts by depressing the central nervous system. Thus they have been used as prescription drugs in emotionally disturbed individuals suffering from insomnia, …

There are several species of octopuses in sea. They come in various size and color. Among them blue ringed octopus is one of the deadliest. This marine creature inhabits in region of Indo Pacific Ocean which includes Australia, New Zealand, …

Lipoblastoma is a benign tumor of immature fat cells. It is usually a solitary tumor which is exclusively found in infants and children mostly below the age of 3 years. However, sporadic cases of this disease can occur in adolescents …

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is cancer of white blood cells present. The disease is characterized by abnormal multiplication of specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes in bone marrow and blood. Normally lymphocytes main function is to fight infection but …

Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver is a non cancerous growth in liver. It usually develops in women during their reproductive age since there is an association of this condition with female reproductive hormones. However, 10 percent of males can …

Caudal regression syndrome is an uncommon and rare disorder in which there is impairment in development of lower half (caudal) of the body. The most deformed areas are usually lower back and lower extremities, genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract. The lower …

Sessile serrated adenomas of the colon are type of polyps that grow on the lining of colon and rectum. The lesions are predominantly observed in cecum and ascending colon. Sessile serrated adenoma is also called by other name as sessile …